Az állatkerti állatok orvoslásában az emésztőszervi megbetegedések minden korban viszonylag nagy számban fordulnak, fordultak elő. Kezdetben főként azért volt ez így, mert a hőskorban maguk az állatkerti szakemberek is inkább csak sejtették, semmint biztosan tudták, hogy melyik állatot mivel is kellene etetni.
Időnként sósperec, máskor gumilabda. Máskor az egzotikus kedvencének módfelett örvendező gazdi felejt el utánanézni, hogy mit is kellene adni az adott jószágnak, avagy rosszul értelmezett állatszeretetből töm bele mindenfélét.
De még ha a fenti lehetőségektől eltekintünk, akkor is tény, hogy az emésztőszervek jellegüknél fogva mindenkor ki vannak téve az élet megpróbáltatásainak.
Természetes hát, hogy az egzotikus és állatkerti állatok emésztőszervi megbetegedései — és ezzel összefüggésben a takarmányozás kapcsolódó kérdései is — együttesen olyan fontos témakört alkotnak, hogy az ezzel kapcsolatos szakmai eszmecserét nem nélkülözhetik azok a hazai állatorvosok, akik nap mint nap egzotikus, illetve állatkerti állatokkal dolgoznak.
Az, hogy erre a jeles eseményre, a Magyar Vad- és Állatkerti Állatorvosok Társaságának idei konferenciájára a régi hagyományoknak megfelelően Állatkertünkben kerülhet sor, mindenképpen büszkeséggel tölt el bennünket. Főként, mivel az előző évek konferenciáinak tapasztalatai alapján mindannyian tudjuk, hogy igen színvonalas programról van szó.
Hiszen ez a konferencia az évek során megkerülhetetlen és kihagyhatatlan szakmai eseménnyé nőtte ki magát mindazok számára, akiket az állatorvoslás ezen területe Magyarországon foglalkoztat. A jó konferenciáknak két haszna mindenképpen szokott lenni. Egyrészt alkalmat teremtenek giardia treat yard, hogy a szakma képviselői a levezető elnök által szigorúan megszabott keretek között, előadások formájában osszák meg egymással tapasztalataikat, eredményeiket.
A másik haszon azonban az, hogy jóval kevésbé szabályozott mederben, akár egy kávészünet közben, ebédszünetben vagy a kapcsolódó kiránduláson sorra kerülő eszmecserék keretében többirányú, és mindenféle kérdést érintő szakmai kommunikációra kerülhet sor.
Az egzotikus és állatkerti állatok orvoslásánál, ahol sokféle az állat, de fajonként kicsi az esetszám, az ilyen típusú információcsere jelentőségét nem lehet eléggé értékelni.
ÁLLATKERTI- ÉS EGZOTIKUS ÁLLATOK EMÉSZTŐSZERVI MEGBETEGEDÉSEI
Budapest, Nutrients are often components or co-enzymes in larger metabolic processes. Imbalances in those processes cause histopathological changes like metaplasia of epithelial surfaces and tubular systems. For this reason clinical signs of nutritional diseases are often not very specific and clinical signs are often only clear in more chronic cases of deficiency or intoxication.
The authors describe an overview of nutritional diseases commonly reported in zoo animals. Vitamins Hypo- or hypervitaminosis can cause a wide range of clinical symptoms and are mainly caused by nutritional errors.
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High levels of vitamin A are found in fruits, liver- and fat-tissue. A common cause of nutritional hypovitaminosis A in parrots is providing a diet of sunflower seeds, either by choice of the owner or by preference of the bird itself Seed junkies. A deficiency of vitamin A is mostly associated with ocular problems like retinal degeneration and keratitis. Histopathological changes due to hypovitaminosis A are squamous metaplasia of epithelial surfaces in body orifices, viscera and ductal structures.
In avian species these changes cause respiratory signs, beak deformities and feather changes due to colour changes and pruritic skin Jones, ; Ritchie, et al. In rhea, oral abscesses are seen associated with hypovitaminosis A, as well as a decreased growth in developing young. It has been described in young crocodiles with a diet of high protein in combination with insufficient dietary giardia treat yard A that gout develops due to insufficient uric acid excretion by the kidneys Auriel, et al, Other reptiles show a typical overgrowth of the hard plates of their jaws and metaplasia in Hardian glands causing conjunctivitis Ellen and Montali, ; Mader, Hypervitaminosis A is reported in domestic felids with muscle pains, hyperesthesia in neck and forelimbs, and with exostosis in long bones Hayes, Robert speculated that hypervitaminosis A causes similar clinical signs in young cheetahs and snow leopards, but this was not confirmed.
In birds hypervitaminosis A will interfere with the remodelling process of bones and is seen as thickening of the metaphyses Ritchie et al, Thiamine Vitamin B1needed in catabolic processes, can be split by thiaminases present in some plants, raw fish, shell fish or in the rumen giardia treat yard by bacteria. Thiamine deficiency causes neurological disorders like ataxia, convulsions and opisthotonus in nonruminant species and polioencephalomalacia, blindness, wandering and disorientation in ruminants Saunders, These animals show neurological signs like incoordination and convulsions, as well as anorexia and weight loss.
Also Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with neurological symptoms and causes demyelinising myelopathy in different animal species. Besides that vitamin B12 deficiency results in a lack of folic acid which is an essential factor in the synthesis of haemoglobin and therefore can also cause anaemia. giardia treat yard
In Chiroptera abnormal flying behaviour and ataxia is seen and it is possible to induce this with a diet szivféreg ultrahang peeled fruits Fowler, Vitamin B12 deficiency is mentioned together with hypovitaminosis A in Cheetah and Snow leopard as a likely cause for nutritional myelopathy Fowler, Enzootic ataxia small ruminants and rhabdomyolysis Equids are known diseases in domestic animals associated with this nutritional deficiency.
Because of the high levels of active compounds in their native browse, Elephants and rhinoceroses are very susceptible for vitamin E deficiency and have been diagnosed with myopathy Bouts and Gasthuys, In marmosets with a low Vitamin E blood level weight loss and anaemia is reported as well as degenerative giardia treat yard Salles, Dilated cardiomyopathy in flying foxes Pteropus spp.
ÁLLATKERTI- ÉS EGZOTIKUS ÁLLATOK EMÉSZTŐSZERVI MEGBETEGEDÉSEI - PDF Free Download
Heard, et al, and several other cardiac pathologies in Western lowland gorillas Gorilla g. Two separate reports in wallabies Macropus rufogriseus describe muscle changes like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and lesions in the skeleton muscles suggesting a link to vitamin E and Selenium deficiency Braga, et al, ; Stern, Reptiles, particularly aquatic carnivore species, present with muscle weakness, incoordination or tremors due to muscle dystrophy in the hind legs Mader, Animals are lethargic, have a loss of appetite and you will find a hard tail as a result of steatitis Mader, Nutritional Metabolic Bone Disease MBDor Nutritional osteodystrophy, is a result of a secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by an imbalance in the calcium-homeostasis.
This involves a complex process in the intestine, kidneys and bone-cortex to balance calcium, phosphate and Vitamin D3 tocholecalciferol. An all-meat diet in birds of prey will cause an inverted Ca:P-ratio Cooper, A variety of bone-pathologies has been observed both in young rickets and adult animals osteomalacia.
Clinical symptoms among others are pathological fractures of long bones, malformations of beaks in birds Ritchie, ; Harrison, and jaws giardia treat yard mammals rubber jawmuscle tremors in reptiles Mader, and an increase of renal calculi in Mustelidae Fowler, et al, Malformations can occur in the plastron and carapace of chelonians Mader, Trace elements and other nutrients The absorption of trace elements is influenced by each other and an excessive intake of one can lead to a deficiency of another trace element.
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Furthermore, susceptibility to some nutritional diseases associated with spore elements like Iron, Copper and Zinc are thought to be influenced by evolutionary adjustments. Animal species living in a habitat where certain elements are rare milyen embernek vannak férgei, mi to have a more efficient uptake to assure that their minimal requirements are met. Imbalanced zoo nutrition or the presence of nutritional factors that 7 enhance the uptake of giardia treat yard elements vitamin C enhances the uptake of iron can then cause an overload or intoxication.
Hemosiderosis iron-storage disease is suspected to have developed this way in several species of Lemurs the most in black lemurs Eulemur macaco and the least giardia treat yard ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta AZA PTAG, ; BANR,carnivores leopard and cheetahsome bird species mainly frugivorous birds, like Bird of Paradise and Toucans and Black Rhinoceros Fowler and Miller, In some of these species the relation with the occurrence of higher levels of tannin in their natural diet is suggested to be involved in the process.
Excessive iron deposits in liver, spleen, bone marrow and reticulocytes cause oxidative damage resulting in fibrosis. Chronic hemosiderosis can lead to liver and kidney disease. Most of the time dyspnoea and weakness resulting from anaemia and distension of the coelomic cavity due to ascites are seen.
Toucans have been reported to only show a short period of depression before acute death Jones, ; Sheppard, Iron deficiency also results in anaemia seen in non-human primates in individuals with a history of hand-rearing or a diet insufficient in vitamin C. An African lion cub Panthera leo krugeri raised only on cow milk presented lethargic and dyspnoeic, with a low body temperature and was confirmed with advanced iron deficient anaemia Mohammedi, Iron deficiency in reptiles results in non-regenerative anaemia and erythrocytes show hypochromatosis Mader, Copper has been associated with deficiency and intoxication, in several wild animal species both in captivity and in the wild.
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Sheep and Camelidae are very susceptible for copper deficiency and intoxication. Copper giardia treat yard causes giardia treat yard growth, poor fertility rates or coat changes. Neurological symptoms can also be seen. A group of Yak at ZSL Whipsnade zoo fed on a domestic ruminant diet showed clinical signs of ataxia, weight loss, alopecia and reduced reproduction, which reacted well on supplementation of copper Clauss and Dierenfeld, Ratites with copper deficiency show signs of ataxia, tremors and incoordination walking backwards.
This in contrary to other bird species, which often show more reduced pigmentation of feathers and on necropsy aneurysms giardia treat yard the aorta have been reported Ritchie et al, ; Jones, Arabian Oryx is often diagnosed with copper deficiency in the Middle-East causing colour changes and appearance of the coat as well as reduced fertility.
Excessive zinc uptake in female non-human primates kept in zinc galvanized cages resulted in clinical symptoms, like microcytic anemia, weakness and changes of their coat due to secondary copper deficiency. Copper intoxication has been described in different domestic animals, like in some dog breeds and sheep. It causes clinical signs due to accumulation of copper in the liver resulting in necrotic changes and anaemia.
High copper levels have been recorded in a captive population of Fruit Bats Artibeus jamaicencis Fowler and Miller, Copper intoxication is also known in camelids showing anorexia and lethargy, Carmalt, ; Weaver, as well as in other free-ranging wildlife species, where it giardia treat yard used as a monitor for giardia treat yard contamination Hoenerhoff, ; Carmalt, Zinc is needed for proper functioning of vitamin A and therefore linked to feather changes.
Zinc deficiency can cause clinical signs like anorexia, bright giardia treat yard or dark faeces and pallor of the oropharynx. Zinc intoxication is often caused by galvanized cages or toys used for enrichment of birds containing zinc.
Animals with zinc intoxication often have polyuria, polydipsia and diarrhoea Cooper, ; Harrison, In red wolf supplemented with oral calcium 8 footpath hyperkeratosis and distal limb pyoderma were seen. Clinical signs resolved after taking away the calcium supplement and adding zinc to the food zinc —responsive dermatitis.
Although blood chemistry was not indicative, zinc deficiency was suspected Kearns, Lead poisoning is often caused by contamination of prey, food and the environment with this metal lead gun pellets.
Encephalopathy and sudden death of animals as a result of hypochromic anaemia, renal tubular necrosis and liver necrosis have been described as well as meddig tart az enterobiosis? chronic cases Zook, et al, ; Harrison, Tetany as a result of hypomagnesaemia is a well-known problem in highly hatékony gyógyszer mindenféle férgek ellen domestic cattle, but was also reported in several captive gazelle species Stogdale, ; Vahala, Insufficient magnesium in the blood can be due to low levels in the diet, decreased absorption or high availability of other minerals in the diet interfering with magnesium uptake.
Clinical signs are the same as in domestic animals ranging from mild local spasms and general weakness to severe tonic-clonic convulsions and recumbency. Because of the contents of goitrogenic substances in the natural diet of tortoises the larger species in particular these animals have giardia treat yard high intake of iodine in their native diet.
High levels of these substances are also found in vegetables given in zoological diets, such as cabbage, and interfere with proper regulation of iodine.
Therefore, when diets in captivity are not properly supplemented with iodine, this often results giardia treat yard iodine deficiency. The same disease process develops in animals with iodine intoxication resulting in general sickness, prolonged gestation, skin problems and increased mortality Topper, ; Mader, ; Kahn and Line, Eventually the diffuse swelling of the thyroid can cause dyspnoea. This is often seen when these animals are kept on a seed only diet that is deficient in iodine Harrison, et al, Iodine deficiencies are also observed in large felids on a meat only diet.
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Due to their higher needs of iodine in the metabolic state it mostly concerns growing cubs resulting in poor growth, alopecia and hyperthyroidism. Energy load and proteins Obesity is a common problem in captivity. This is often seen in birds who get many treats as well as in captive oryx and other antelopes when zoos use commercial ruminant pellets rich in protein.
This not only causes obesity, but can also cause diarrhoea, overgrown hoofs or rumen acidosis Gilbert and Woodfine, A substantial problem in young fast growing ratites is deformations of the tibial bones and toes.
Among other factors it is caused by a high protein diet which causes angular limb deformities, like tibio-tarsal rotation Glatz, ; Ritchie, ; Harrison, A high protein diet in tortoises results in the abnormal growth of the plastron as well as a too rapid growth of the body compared to the plastron and carapace Mader, A protein-deficient diet will result in an animal that is generally weak or not growing well.
Proteins are important precursors of many processes and therefore can cause a wide variety of symptoms. Often these animals have some form of diarrhoea or have a history of reoccurring infections. Low fibre-diets can result in bloat or diarrhoea as a result of abnormal fermentation of easy available carbohydrates. Improper diets in browsing ruminants are reported to be giardia treat yard cause of some pathological conditions like the forming of phytobezoars in giraffes and mule deer.
Rumen acidosis has been observed in most of the browsing giardia treat yard ruminants and changes in the ruminal papillation were described in zoo-kept giraffes. These clinical signs are attributed to the difference in physical anatomy of the rumen between browsers and grazers Fowler and Miller, ; Clauss et al, ; Mader, Treatment Treatment of nutritional diseases can be challenging, and is aimed at restoring the balance in the feed or chelating the toxic element.
Correcting the deficiency or intoxication will stop the current process but will not reverse the existing damage.
Hence, depending on the degree of damage present, recovery can be a very slow process. Preventing nutritional diseases is more important than trying to treat them and in-debt knowledge of the natural diet and feeding behaviour giardia treat yard indispensable. Only then a balanced diet can be prepared. Do not try to save money on nutrition in your zoos as at the end of the day you will be paying heavily by losing animals due to bad nutrition References Allen, M. Montalli : Nutrition and disease in zoo animals.
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Giardia treat yard Zootieren, 35, Auriel, E. Ladds, G. Buenviaje : Concurrent gout and suspected hypovitaminosis A in crocodile hatchlings. Australian Veterinary Journal, 75 4 Aulerich, R.
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Davis, S. Sikarskie, J. Bartsch, R. Onderstepoort Journal Veterinary Research. Bennett, B. Abee, R. Henrickson : Nonhuman primates in biomedical research.
Bouts, T. Gasthuys : The importance of vitamine E in zoo mammals.
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Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 72, Braga, I. Satoshi, K. Ochiai, C. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 43 2